The Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) is Japan's army. While it has grown to about 148,000 soldiers, that isn't a big enough force to do more than stall any potential invaders of the various islands of Japan. The defense of the country is organized under the assumption that the United States or another country will intervene to provide the needed force to repel an attack. The JGSDF consists of 16 branches: Infantry, Armor, Field Artillery, Antiaircraft Artillery, Aviation, Facilities, Communication, Weapons, Quartermaster, Transportation, Chemistry, Police, Accounting, Health, Music, and School of Information.
In addition to the practical effects of the geography of Japan and the anti-military concern of the population after World War II, this densely-packed country struggles with being able to adequately train its soldiers. There is little space for military exercises. Where there may be enough land for maneuvering, there are noise ordinances that restrict the ability to conduct live fire training. Over the years, the inability for extensive and realistic training has led to troop morale issues.